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Leonore Scheffrahn

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What Causes Hammer Toes

July 21, 2015
HammertoeOverview

Hammertoe is a condition in which the toes of your feet become contracted into an upside-down "V" shape, causing pain, pressure and, often, corns and calluses. Hammer toe can develop on any of the toes, but generally affects the middle three toes, most often the second toe. The bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons of your feet normally are well-balanced to distribute your body's weight while standing, walking and running. When the first and second joints of your toes experience the prolonged stress that develops when the muscles that control them fail to work together properly, the pressure on the tendons that support them can lead to the curling or contraction known as hammertoe.

Causes

Wearing shoes that squeeze the toes or high heels that jam the toes into the front of the shoe. Other causes or factors in the development of hammertoes can include an injury such as badly stubbing your toe, arthritis and nerve and muscle damage from diseases such as diabetes. And, hammertoes tend to run in families, although it is more likely the faulty foot mechanics that lead to hammertoes that are inherited, not the hammertoes themselves. Hammertoe generally affect the smaller toes of the foot, especially the second toe, which for many people is the longest toe. It's uncommon for the big toe to be bent this way.

Hammer ToeSymptoms

The symptoms of a hammer toe include the following. Pain at the top of the bent toe upon pressure from footwear. Formation of corns on the top of the joint. Redness and swelling at the joint contracture. Restricted or painful motion of the toe joint. Pain in the ball of the foot at the base of the affected toe.

Diagnosis

The earlier a hammertoe is diagnosed, the better the prognosis and treatment options. Your doctor will be able to diagnose your hammertoe with a simple examination of the foot and your footwear. He or she may take an x-ray to check the severity of the condition. You may also be asked about your symptoms, your normal daily activities, and your medical and family history.

Non Surgical Treatment

People with a hammer toe benefit from wearing shoes in which the toe box is made of a flexible material and is wide enough and high enough to provide adequate room for the toes. High-heeled shoes should be avoided, because they tend to force the toes into a narrow, flat toe box. A doctor may recommend an insert (orthotic) for the shoe to help reduce friction and pressure on the hammer toe. Wearing properly fitted shoes may reduce pain and inflammation. It may also prevent ulcers from developing and help existing ulcers heal. However, the hammer toe does not disappear.

Surgical Treatment

As previously mentioned it?s best to catch this problem early; hammer toe taping is relatively harmless and simple. Long term complications can cause foot deformities and even difficulty walking. It?s always best to stiff shoes and Hammer toes high heel, especially if you?re working on hammer toe recovery. Pick comfortable shoes with plenty of toe space. Prevention is the best cure here as this injury is nearly always self inflicted.

HammertoePrevention

To help prevent hammer toes from developing, wear shoes or boots that provide sufficient width in the toe box to ensure minimal compression. Use inserts that help the toes flatten out and spread and give sufficient support to the metatarsal arch in the forefoot. If hammer toes have already formed, padded socks help protect the tops and the tips of the hammer toes and may reduce pain from rubbing and chafing.

What Causes Hammertoe Deformity

July 9, 2015
Hammer ToeOverview
A Hammer Toe is commonly mistaken as any type of toe deformity. The terms claw toe, or mallet toe, although technically different than a hammer toe, are commonly referred as such. The toe may be flexible with movement at the joints, or it may be rigid, especially if it has been present for a long time. With a true hammertoe the deformity exists at the proximal interphalangeal joint only.
Causes
Hammertoe is caused when muscles fail to work in a balanced manner and the toe joints bend to form the hammertoe shape. If they remain in this position, the muscles and tendons supporting them tighten and stay that way. Causes of hammertoe can include squeezing into a too-small or ill-fitting shoe or wearing high heels that jam your toes into a tight toe box. An injury such as badly stubbing your toe. Arthritis. Nerve and muscle damage from diseases such as diabetes, Hammertoe
Symptoms
Symptoms may include pain in the affected toe or toes when you wear shoes, making it hard or painful to walk. A corn or callus on the top of the joint caused by rubbing against the shoe. Swelling and redness of the skin over the joint. Trouble finding comfortable shoes.
Diagnosis
Your healthcare provider will examine your foot, checking for redness, swelling, corns, and calluses. Your provider will also measure the flexibility of your toes and test how much feeling you have in your toes. You may have blood tests to check for arthritis, diabetes, and infection.
Non Surgical Treatment
You can usually use over-the-counter cushions, pads, or medications to treat bunions and corns. However, if they are painful or if they have caused your toes to become deformed, your doctor may opt to surgically remove them. If you have blisters on your toes, do not pop them. Popping blisters can cause pain and infection. Use over-the-counter creams and cushions to relieve pain and keep blisters from rubbing against the inside of your shoes. Gently stretching your toes can also help relieve pain and reposition the affected toe.
Surgical Treatment
If you are unable to flex your toe, surgery is the only option to restore movement. Surgery is used to reposition the toe, remove deformed or injured bone, and realign your tendons. Surgery is normally done on an outpatient basis, so you can return home on the day of your surgery.

Foot Bunions Cause

June 27, 2015
Overview
Bunion Pain A bunion is a combination of an enlargement of the joint at the base and side of the big toe as well as the big toe being angled towards the rest of the toes (this angulation is known as Hallux Valgus). A bunion can lead to other foot deformities and problems such as a hammer toe of the second toe, corns and calluses as well as ingrown toenails. So if the pain isn't enough of a driving factor, the chance of developing these further complications should outline the importance and urgency of seeking treatment with a podiatrist.
Causes
Causes of bunions and risk factors for bunions include a family tendency to bunions may make them more likely to develop. Arthritis of the foot, if it affects walking, it can make bunions more likely to develop. Neuromuscular problems, such as cerebral palsy. Biomechanical factors, such as low arches, flat feet and hypermobile joints, can increase the risk. Wearing shoes that are too tight, too narrow and with pointed toes will exacerbate symptoms if bunions are present. Wearing high heels will also exacerbate existing bunions. Women are more prone to bunions than men.
Symptoms
The dominant symptom of a bunion is a big bulging bump on the inside of the base of the big toe. Other symptoms include swelling, soreness and redness around the big toe joint, a tough callus at the bottom of the big toe and persistent or intermittent pain.
Diagnosis
A doctor can very often diagnose a bunion by looking at it. A foot x-ray can show an abnormal angle between the big toe and the foot. In some cases, arthritis may also be seen.
Non Surgical Treatment
A bunion treatment must address the underlying cause of the deformity, not just the bump (bunion) itself but also the functions of the foot. The up and down motion of the longitudinal arches in the foot. The sideways motion of the transverse arch. Bunion aids effectively treat this underlying foot function while straightening the big toe because the mid-foot strap stabilizes the longitudinal arches and transverse arch. The toe strap gradually and gently pulls the big toe away from the second toe. The metatarsal pad helps align the transverse arch. The hinged splint enables the big toe to flex while walking and adapts to the contour of the foot, especially around the inflamed area of the joint. Bunions Hard Skin
Surgical Treatment
Sometimes a screw is placed in the foot to hold a bone in a corrected position, other times a pin, wire or plate is chosen. There are even absorbable pins and screws, which are used for some patients. In British Columbia, pins seem to be used most frequently, as they're easier to insert and less expensive. They are typically--but not always--removed at some point in the healing process. But as a general rule, Dr. Schumacher prefers to use screws whenever possible, as they offer some advantages over pins. First, using screws allows you to close over the wound completely, without leaving a pin sticking out of the foot. That allows for a lower infection rate, it allows you to get your foot wet more quickly following the surgery, and it usually allows for a quicker return to normal shoes. Second, they're more stable than pins and wires. Stability allows for faster, more uneventful, bone healing. Third, they usually don't need to be removed down the road, so there's one less procedure involved.

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